Petroleum substances in soil and groundwater in the urban areas.
Tadeusz Solecki, Jerzy Stopa
Vol. 33, no. 1 (2016), s. 135-143, 
The result of human activity is polluting the soil and water. Based on the results of heavy metals studies it can be stated that the level of contamination of soil and water in urban areas is not high. This image is changing after taking into account other types of pollution. Besides some heavy metal contamination urban areas are contaminated with petroleum. Contamination of oil derivatives has a significant impact on the soil and water environment. In addition, some petroleum substances, such as petrol, have high vapour pressure. This causes a displacement of soil air from the vadose zone through the hydrocarbon gases, which creates a risk of explosion, especially in urban areas. This paper describes the pollution of ground-water oil derivatives in an urban area on the example of an oil filling station, operated for several years. In order to assess the condition of soil, 90 soil samples from different depths and 20 samples of groundwater were taken. Samples were taken for laboratory oil content tests. Using a computer program, a map of quality standards exceedances of soil and groundwater at the oil filling station and its vicinity was created. Results of laboratory tests of water samples are presented in tables and based on them, the classification of the underground water quality was made. Results of this study indicate a significant pollution of soil and groundwater exceeding the applicable standards. Condition of the soil and the quality of underground water in the oil filling station indicate the necessity of reparation.