Optimization of well placement and control to maximize CO₂ trapping during geologic sequestration.
Jerzy Stopa, Damian Janiga, Paweł Wojnarowski, Robert Czarnota
Vol. 33, no. 1 (2016), s. 93-103, 
The CO₂ injection into geological formations such as saline aquifers can be effective method of sequestration enabling efficient immobilization of gas by surface and capillary forces. The main objective of presented method of optimization was to determine optimal well position and injection rates that maximize residual trapping. This would mitigate the risk of the CO2 leakage outside of storage zone. A genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization have been developed and coupled with reservoir simulator to optimally examine various placement and injection control strategies for vertical as well as horizontal well. Optimization was carried out in 3D heterogeneous real field model with water-CO2 -formation rock relationship. Numerical examples confirm that developed algorithm can find a promising optimal solution effectively within a partial number of simulation runs.